is cumin safe during pregnancy

His interest in curcumin arose when his father-in-law was diagnosed with colon cancer. Blue Cohosh is a uterine stimulant. If you are a woman of reproductive age and you could become pregnant, and you drink alcohol on a regular basis, taking curcumin offers a layer of protection against casual or accidental drinking alcohol during early pregnancy, before you know you are pregnant. It is safe for consumption during pregnancy. According to experts, this spice can disturb pregnancy and may lead to miscarriage. Stop using cumin at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery. Although herbs have served us well for centuries as seasonings and natural remedies, these herbs to avoid during pregnancy are potentially harmful to mothers and developing babies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Curcumin also protects against heart defects³ triggered by the mother’s consumption of alcohol. It is extensively used in curries and stews. ... Cumin. Is it OK to Eat Hummus When Pregnant. Cumin is thought to be native to the middle east. There is also substantial reason to believe it is safe for women to use curcumin supplements during the second and third trimesters of their pregnancies. Is cumin water safe during pregnancy? After the third month, one of the most important concerns is not going into labor too soon. Scientists at the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles have also found that, at least in laboratory testing, curcumin helps fetal lung tissue mature⁴ so that even if the baby is born prematurely, the lungs will be better developed. Consuming large amounts of cumin seeds can lead to miscarriage or may induce labour. This is because of their property to alleviate symptoms of bronchial asthma. Herbal Supplement Risks. Traditional uses of cumin help to reduce inflammation and prevent gas during pregnancy. Although it is rare, you could contract the bacteria or … Safe during childbirth. Hence, drinking jeera water must be avoided. Curcumin by itself will not stop labor because it only affects one of the ways the uterus is activated when the mother goes into labor, but pregnant women should, however, discontinue the use of curcumin at least a week before their due dates. Women who already have asthma can consume cumin seeds to prevent frequent asthma attacks during asthma. Thank for your hard reasearch. Components may have antioxidant, anticancer, hypoglycemic, antiepileptic, antiosteoporotic, ophthalmic, antibacterial, and larvicidal effects; however, there is no clinical evidence to support these claims. Can women who are pregnant (especially women who do not know they are pregnant) use curcumin safely during pregnancy? Eucalyptus. We all are well aware of the nutrient value of turmeric as a pain reliever and could do wonders for your skin. Therefore, it is one of the best and safe spices to eat during pregnancy. In fact, experts at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre in the US claimed that pregnant women should avoid consuming the oil altogether, as one of the side effects is it can have an impact on the muscles of the uterus, preventing contractions from taking place. Read on to find out In many chain stores, you will easily access black seed oil extracted from black cumin seed; also known as nigella sativa. 2. Is curcumin safe to use while breast feeding? Thank you very much for all answers! Your email address will not be published. Black Seed Oil During Pregnancy Ancient healers of many traditional forms of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani-Tibb and Siddha, have revered this little seed of black goodness is a medicine gift from God/Nature/The Universe! In fact, its use dates back 4,000 years to the Vedic culture in India. Does it effect a woman’s milk supply? Many people have acknowledged the use of black seed oil as […] Yes, it is not only safe, but healthy. These are typically found in either tablet, tea, or infusion form. Common herbs used in pregnancy. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. Most health care providers recommend you avoid taking any herb during the first trimester and during the second trimester and third trimester you should use only minimal amounts and only with your health care providers knowledge and approval. Herbs are not regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; therefore, the quantity, quality and composition of herbal supplements are questionable. Your email address will not be published. Stay on the safe side and avoid use. Researchers have found evidence that cumin suppresses testosterone levels, which means it could make men less fertile if theyre taking it. Sorry Whitney, but you need to consult your own doctor for advise like this. Hing. I am now expecting my second child. Therefore, it is a safe spice to eat during pregnancy.Turmeric. It relieves the tummy bloating, morning sickness and constipation during pregnancy. In fact, taking curcumin probably reduces the risk of several common birth defects. During the woman’s fertile years, every woman is advised to take a daily pill with a 400 microgram dose folic acid. Headaches are common during pregnancy. Therefore, it is a safe spice to eat during pregnancy.Turmeric. It is safe to drink jeera water during pregnancy. Some experts worry that it might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Spices during pregnancy can be extremely beneficial.We all are well aware of the nutrient value of turmeric as a pain reliever and could do wonders for your skin. It is safe to drink jeera water during pregnancy. Cumin is thought to be native to the middle east. Mutat Res. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration rates certain supplements and medications so pregnant women know more about what's safe and what's potentially dangerous. As with other remedies that are rumored to jumpstart labor in pregnant women, it is important to know if cumin tea is safe during other stages of pregnancy. Surgery: Cumin might lower blood sugar levels. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00076.2011. Do not GORGE YOURSELF on cumin! Although it is rare, you could contract the bacteria or … Some herbs contain steroids that can affect the baby's development during pregnancy and/or nursing. Another classification, this time from the Natural Medicines Database instead of the FDA, is "Insufficient Reliable Information Available." This is because of their property to alleviate symptoms of bronchial asthma. A study in 2012 suggested there may be no detrimental effect on the treatment of eczema if sufferers replace medical creams with nigella sativa. Frankincense can be used to combat a variety of ailments, but we especially love it for fostering relaxation! As outlined above, some believe that taking black cumin seed oil is risky during pregnancy. If my stomach is upset, when not pregnant, I eat a handful and feel fine within an hour. There is no indication that taking curcumin can cause a pregnant woman to go into labor too soon. Some herbs contain steroids that can affect the baby's development during pregnancy and/or nursing. Experiments with animals testing found that taking the equivalent of 3,000 mg of curcumin a day did not cause mutations in bone or blood cells, and did not alter the percentages of pregnancies resulting in healthy births. Cumin has been used by some cultures as a substance to trigger miscarriage, so women that are pregnant or trying to become pregnant should keep that in mind. They can also help to improve lactation post pregnancy and prevent hemorrhoids during the recovery period. The mother’s body protects the embryo against substances that can cause genetic damage by morning sickness. Since then, he's been researching the various ways that curcumin has been employed in the treatment of disease. The pregnancy process is one of the periods that you may need to stay away from even your favorite foods. Stay on the safe side and stick to food amounts. The following herbs have been rated Likely Safe or Possibly Safe for use during pregnancy: 4. Most health care providers recommend you avoid taking any herb during the first trimester and during the second trimester and third trimester you should use only minimal amounts and only with your health care providers knowledge and approval. [ Read: Is Licorice Root Safe During Pregnancy] If you are in the habit of having green teas that contain parsley extract and parsley seeds, it could potentially increase the amount of apiol and myristicin you consume on a regular basis. Cumin is generally … Rich Source of Antioxidants. Curcumin augments lung maturation, preventing neonatal lung injury by inhibiting TGF-beta signaling. Most spices, such as cinnamon and black pepper, are safe in food doses, such as when you sprinkle them on foods or use them in cooking. Read on to find out In many chain stores, you will easily access black seed oil extracted from black cumin seed; also known as nigella sativa. These herbs to avoid during pregnancy can be harmful during pregnancy and are unsafe for you and your baby. 11 Safe Herbs During Pregnancy 1. After the third month, one of the most important concerns is not going into labor too soon. I needed a safer alternative for inflammation. Herbs and spices that are labeled "likely safe" are generally considered safe to take during pregnancy, but ones that are labeled as "likely unsafe" or "unsafe" are obviously off-limits. Is cumin tea safe during pregnancy? Millions of pregnant women in India eat cumin in every meal. The herbs that are considered safe to use during pregnancy are often food or tonic herbs. Some cultures use cumin just like salt & pepper. Oral sex is not off the table as well. I was diagnosed with ulcerative colitios after my first child. In almost every dish with spices do not miss this one. And when it comes to your baby, you don't want to take any chances during pregnancy. Is black seed oil safe? Food poisoning can also cause a stillbirth or a baby who is born very ill. They can also help to improve lactation post pregnancy and prevent hemorrhoids during the recovery period. Is It Safe to Use Curcumin During Pregnancy? Cumin seeds contain flavonoids, many of which are now generally recognized to have antioxidant activity. In this process, eating healthy is more important for both your own and your baby’s health. Psychopharmacology (Berl). Some experts worry that it might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. It is not particularly safe for consumption during pregnancy, as too much cumin intake (in the form of jeera water) can lead to certain side effects such as heartburn or increased body heat. Safe during childbirth. These studies did not involve humans, so researchers cannot say whether curcumin will produce the same results in pregnant women. 2012 Dec;224(4):519-35. doi: 10.1007/s00213-012-2779-9. Is black seed oil safe? (And by the way, it's fine to have sex during pregnancy – meaning vaginal intercourse – as long as your healthcare provider has given you the go ahead.) But taking the larger amounts found in medicine is LIKELY UNSAFE . While many essential oils are considered safe for use during pregnancy when used correctly, there are several essential oils you should not use during pregnancy. Consuming large amounts of cumin seeds can lead to miscarriage or may induce labour. During pregnancy, it is important to stay as calm and relaxed as possible. Genetic effects of turmeric and curcumin in mice and rats. Hence, drinking jeera water must be avoided. So, even though herbs are natural, it doesn't mean they're safe. During pregnancy, there are some spices that must be avoided, while some are safe for the mother to consume. Animal data. In fact, in studies of the isolated uterine tissue at the Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute in Toronto, curcumin is used to inhibit muscle contractions. Frankincense can be used to combat a variety of ailments, but we especially love it for fostering relaxation! Does it have any side effects linked to kidney skin acne or pregnancy? Drinking jeera water is the safest way to receive all the benefits, while enjoying the flavour and staying safe… Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of cumin during pregnancy and breast-feeding. (And by the way, it's fine to have sex during pregnancy – meaning vaginal intercourse – as long as your healthcare provider has given you the go ahead.) Wang L, Sun H, Pan B, Zhu J, Huang G, Huang X, Tian J. Inhibition of histone acetylation by curcumin reduces alcohol-induced expression of heart development-related transcription factors in cardiac progenitor cells. Always talk to your doctor or a certified herbalist before taking any herbs or spices, the American Pregnancy Association cautions. Sometimes, these remedies can actually trigger preterm labor and should be avoided during pregnancy. Medical researchers at the Children’s Hospital at Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University in China have found that curcumin protects against the activation of genes that cause heart defects when alcohol is consumed during pregnancy. One study even suggested that taking curcumin could protect the unborn from the effects of alcohol consumed by the mother during early pregnancy. You can worry about whether seafood can be eaten during pregnancy. Aniseed – may stimulate contractions; Basil – may contribute to … It if happens later in the pregnancy, it can cause your baby to be born prematurely. Know which herbs are not safe during pregnancy so you will avoid making a dangerous mistake. Tiwari V, Chopra K. Attenuation of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis by curcumin prevents cognitive deficits in rats postnatally exposed to ethanol. Here is a list of the spices which can cause no body harm during pregnancy and can be consumed safely. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if cumin is safe to use as a medicine when pregnant or breast-feeding. I am eating oil about 3 months, and i feel very good. These studies did not involve humans, so researchers cannot say whether curcumin will produce the same results in pregnant women. Cumin is generally recognized as safe for human consumption as a spice and flavoring.3. Some spices could cause miscarriage or early pregnancy loss, but not because of their spicy flavor. Speaking with an herbalist can help you learn what you can safely use to ease these symptoms. While certain herbs and spices are safe during pregnancy, and even recommended in some cases, other varieties are off-limits until you deliver your baby. Including in this list are dandelion, chamomile and nettles. It is rich in vitamin A, K, C … Herbs are not regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; therefore, the quantity, quality and composition of herbal supplements are questionable. “Is it safe to eat octopus during pregnancy” is just one of This site uses cookies to improve your experience. Curcumin also protects against heart defects³ triggered by the mother’s consumption of alcohol. Herbs that induce labor have to be avoided at least until the baby has reached full term. Use of eucalyptus oil in moderation does not affect the expectant mother and foetus. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of cumin during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can be very destructive to the unborn child. Turmeric during pregnancy is likely safe when people consume it in the amounts typically present in foods and drinks. Cumin . Always talk to your doctor or a certified herbalist before taking any herbs or spices, the American Pregnancy Association cautions. Black Seed Oil During Pregnancy Ancient healers of many traditional forms of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani-Tibb and Siddha, have revered this little seed of black goodness is a medicine gift from God/Nature/The Universe! Other uses include reducing the risk of stretch marks, aids the immune system and improves sleep. What science knows about curcumin and safety during early pregnancy has been established through animal testing¹. Best Pregnancy Sex Positions. In many parts of the world, women continue to consume it during pregnancy, adding cumin to various dishes, and even bread. Hing. Cumin seeds are used in cooking and the oil is used to flavor food and scent cosmetics. A lot of the sexual positions are fine during pregnancy but comfort should be a top priority. Epub 2011 Aug 5. It also acts as a decongestant. The American Pregnancy Association notes that seeing a certified herbalist might also provide useful information about what's safe and what you need to avoid. Epub 2012 Jul 7. When used in cooking, occasional use of the culinary herbs listed below is considered safe. Even though most women can’t eat curry during the first trimester of pregnancy because of stomach upset (some women actually crave curry after they get past their morning sickness), there’s substantial reason to believe that it is safe for women to use curcumin supplements during the first trimester of their pregnancies. At any given time there are all … Cumin has great anti-inflammatory properties; it is dense in antioxidants. Physical changes can affect how sex is to be had and as such, finding the right position is a matter of experimentation. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if cumin is safe to use as a medicine when pregnant or breast-feeding. Food poisoning can be even more dangerous to your baby’s health than to yours. Parsley, on the other hand, can be used to induce menses so I don't eat much of that during pregnancy. 2011 Nov;301(5):L721-30. When my stomach is sour or I feel nauseated with pregnancy I eat a very small handful and feel better w/in 45 minutes. As with other remedies that are rumored to jumpstart labor in pregnant women, it is important to know if cumin tea is safe during other stages of pregnancy. Summary Cumin is very safe … Now i am trying to become pregnant. Traditional uses of cumin help to reduce inflammation and prevent gas during pregnancy. I come from Europe and I have a question about using black cumin oil during pregnancy. Thank you so much Dr. Williams for having this information available. Turmeric — also called the “ golden spice ” for its vibrant yellow color — has a long history. Drinking jeera water is the safest way to receive all the benefits, while enjoying the flavour and staying safe… The Cumin . We all are well aware of the nutrient value of turmeric as a pain reliever and could do wonders for your skin. Myristicin can also cause other side effects like dizziness and loss of balance. There is an entirely different list of herbs and spices that are "possibly unsafe" and shouldn't be taken without the approval of your doctor. Do not GORGE YOURSELF on cumin! Herbs on the other hand, aren't that simple. Herbs, Pregnancy, and Safety. Vijayalaxmi. If your partner does have an STI, (or if you're not sure,) oral sex is not safe. I am afraid to have a flare up again. Sara Ipatenco has taught writing, health and nutrition. Herbs that are "likely unsafe" or "unsafe" include: Autumn crocus and arbor vitae should also be avoided because they can cause birth defects, Pregnancy.org reports. It's always best to err on the side of caution and stop using any herbs without speaking to your doctor first. Sometimes, these remedies can actually trigger preterm labor and should be avoided during pregnancy. It is safe for consumption during pregnancy. black cumin oil during pregnancy: Hello! Nettle leaf potion is the perfect tonic for pregnant women. This small annual plant is native to the Mediterranean region, where it is cultivated extensively. Intake of cumin seeds in a limited amount is considered normal during pregnancy, but excessive consumption can be harmful to pregnant women. Does it have any side effects linked to kidney skin acne or pregnancy? Epub 2012 Jul 13. Many people have acknowledged the use of black seed oil as […] Herbs, Pregnancy, and Safety. During pregnancy, there are some ... Cumin. Herbs and spices might seem like innocent additions to your cooking repertoire or health regimen, but if you're pregnant, you should proceed with caution. It relieves the tummy bloating, morning sickness and constipation during pregnancy. Therefore, it is one of the best and safe spices to eat during pregnancy. Cumin seeds may also have an abortifacient effect on women during pregnancy. Herbs and spices that are labeled "likely safe" are generally considered safe to take during pregnancy, but ones that are labeled as "likely unsafe" or "unsafe" are obviously off-limits. There are some medicated treatments that are not safe to use during pregnancy, which you may be able to replace with black cumin seed. Surgery: Cumin might lower blood sugar levels. Know which herbs are not safe during pregnancy so you will avoid making a dangerous mistake. If you develop food poisoning during the first 3 months of pregnancy, it can cause a miscarriage. Indian researchers have found that curcumin protects against the destruction of brain tissue caused by fetal alcohol syndrome² by deactivation the genes that cause apoptosis (“cellular suicide”) in the brain of the embryo after alcohol exposure. Black seed oil is very highly esteemed among the world of herbal remedies. Into astrology? Ginger: One of the most helpful home remedies that are available in our kitchen is ginger. Ipatenco holds a bachelor's degree and a master's degree in education, both from the University of Denver. Pregnant women should avoid the use of hing or asfoteida at the time of pregnancy. Ginger can cure morning sickness, nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, some of the common pregnancy problems. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Black seed seems to be safe in food amounts during pregnancy. That means there are no studies that prove that these herbs are safe or not. Cumin has great anti-inflammatory properties; it is dense in antioxidants. (Taking curcumin does not, however, make it safe for women to drink alcohol during the first three months of their pregnancies. Is cumin water safe during pregnancy? has been established through animal testing, that curcumin protects against the destruction of brain tissue caused by fetal alcohol syndrome, Curcumin also protects against heart defects. However, it contains a substance called cur-cumin which is a natural detoxifier that protects liver from the damages of alcohol, chemical and some pharmaceuticals. She started writing in 2007 and has been published in Teaching Tolerance magazine. Herbal Supplement Risks. Yes. All the best to all pregnant women and mums! However, over consumption of any spice should be avoided, as they have a strong effect on the body; jeera is no exception. Antioxidant effects. Cumin contains lots of plant compounds that research has proven to … Nowadays, it is more commonly cultivated in … 1980 Oct;79(2):125-32. Other uses include reducing the risk of stretch marks, aids the immune system and improves sleep. Cumin seeds may also have an abortifacient effect on women during pregnancy. It can cause brain damage, heart damage, and serious respiratory complications if the baby is born too early. Cumin is a common household ingredient which has added medicinal traits. Many spices and herbs stimulate uterine contractions or uterine bleeding, which can cause very early miscarriage or later pregnancy loss. Stop using cumin at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery. Jeera or cumin is one such ingredient that has a multitude of benefits. Nettle Leaves. Is Curcumin Safe in Late Pregnancy? 1. Eucalyptus oil can be safely applied on the forehead to alleviate headaches and migraine symptoms. The answer to this question is an unqualified “Yes!” based on over 30 years of research. Some cultures use cumin just like salt & pepper. But taking the larger amounts found in medicine is LIKELY UNSAFE . It is extensively used in curries and stews. Obviously, no one is ever going to run a scientific clinical trial that carries any potential risk to pregnant women or their babies. Check out our Zodiac Center! Cumin is a common household ingredient which has added medicinal traits. Folic acid is especially important during the three months before the pregnancy and during the first trimester, since it significantly reduces the risk of Neural Tube Defect - NTD (by up to 70%). [ Read: Is Licorice Root Safe During Pregnancy] If you are in the habit of having green teas that contain parsley extract and parsley seeds, it could potentially increase the amount of apiol and myristicin you consume on a regular basis. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. Required fields are marked *. Intake of cumin seeds in a limited amount is considered normal during pregnancy, but excessive consumption can be harmful to pregnant women. Studies have shown that babies of mothers with high levels of inflammation during pregnancy are at an ... Turmeric substitutes that are pregnancy-safe. Sakurai R, Li Y, Torday JS, Rehan VK. Dr. Andy Williams is a biologist with an interest in natural health alternatives. The greatest threat to the health of the unborn child during the first trimester of pregnancy is genetic damage. They continue to have many, many babies without any more risk than the next guy. It only reduces damage that may be done to the baby’s developing brain.). Learn the difference so you can avoid the dangers they pose to you and your unborn baby. They continue to have many, many babies without any more risk than the next guy. Cumin has been used by some cultures as a substance to trigger miscarriage, so women that are pregnant or trying to become pregnant should keep that in mind. During pregnancy, it is important to stay as calm and relaxed as possible. However, over consumption of any spice should be avoided, as they have a strong effect on the body; jeera is no exception. Romm notes that many herbs are useful during pregnancy and can help ease many common pregnancy complaints such as tired feet and morning sickness. And curcumin may also protect babies from respiratory problems triggered in early pregnancy but only showing up when they have to be delivered before full term, in the sixth, seventh, or eighth month of pregnancy. Millions of pregnant women in India eat cumin in every meal. And i want to know if is using black cumin oil safe in pregnancy. The herbs to avoid during pregnancy below have been found to be particularly unsafe during pregnancy. The rating of herbs and spices is more of a gray area, however, because the potency of different batches of these can vary, the American Pregnancy Association reports. Black seed oil is very highly esteemed among the world of herbal remedies. Stay on the safe side and avoid use. Women who already have asthma can consume cumin seeds to prevent frequent asthma attacks during asthma. There is also substantial reason to believe it is safe for women to use curcumin supplements during the second and third trimesters of their pregnancies. However, I am not offering medical advice here, so if you want that, consult your doctor. ... including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy… Jeera Water Benefits During Pregnancy – One herb that is very popular in the Asian region is the cumin seeds. If you are looking for a pregnancy-safe, argan oil-infused shampoo which is also budget-friendly, Brooklyn Botany Moroccan Argan Oil Shampoo is the one for you. When the embryo is exposed to medications or chemicals that cause genetic damage, the result can be birth defects, or, more often, miscarriage or spontaneous abortion (abortion that is not induced by a drug or medical procedure). 2012 Aug 3;424(3):593-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.06.158. Jeera or cumin is one such ingredient that has a multitude of benefits. Traditional uses of cumin help to reduce inflammation and prevent gas during pregnancy. Yes, it is not only safe, but healthy. The Truth About Black Seed Oil (10 Benefits and Dangers) Posted on August 20th, 2020 To say that black seed oil was the latest health food craze would be somewhat disingenuous, because in actual fact there are dozens of superfoods that could earn this label. The lists below are not all-inclusive, but will provide a general guideline of some of the most commonly used western herbs that should be avoided during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Is cumin tea safe during pregnancy? American Pregnancy Association: Herbs and Pregnancy, The Natural Pregnancy Book: Herbs, Nutrition, and Other Holistic Choices; Aviva Jill Romm, according to the American Pregnancy Association. Are There Any Side Effects from Taking Curcumin? Curcumin also protects against heart defects³ triggered by the mother’s consumption of alcohol. In many parts of the world, women continue to consume it during pregnancy, adding cumin to various dishes, and even bread. If your partner does have an STI, (or if you're not sure,) oral sex is not safe. The cumin seed widely is used in cooking. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Black seed seems to be safe in food amounts during pregnancy. Essential Oils You Should Not Use While Pregnant. A flare up is most common after child birth but I’m hoping this will help. Always ask your obstetrician before using any herbs and spices, especially if they are in supplement form. A creamy blend of pureed chickpeas, garlic, lemon juice and tahini, hummus is packed with essential nutrients you need to support a healthy pregnancy. Nowadays, it is more commonly cultivated in India, China, other parts of Asia, and North America. All I will do is tell you about the research backing up the safety of curcumin during pregnancy.

Climate Zone Of San Francisco California, Wilson Pro Staff Precision Xl 110 Review, Eaten Alive By Maggots, Residence Inn Raleigh, Sous Chef Salary Philippines, Hungarian Cold Raspberry Soup, How To Draw A Waterfall Art Hub, M87 Black Hole Name,

Deixe um comentário

O seu endereço de e-mail não será publicado. Campos obrigatórios são marcados com *